A cargo ship in the ocean from above

Expert Evidence Services

Marine Biofouling  |  Coatings  |  Ballast Water

Expert evidence

PML Applications’ scientific experts have an extensive track record of working with the commercial shipping sector on issues with fouling and antifouling treatment systems, corrosion and ballast water management.

They understand the marine environment as well as the commercial shipping sector and the requirements that this industry has to meet in order to run efficiently.

Globally recognized for its marine expertise PML Applications’ experts provide advice to law firms,
national and international bodies such as the IMO, UN GESAMP and deliver training for the IMO and industry.

PML Applications is a subsidiary of Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and combines PML’s globally acknowledged scientific expertise with extensive commercial knowledge of fouling, coating and ballast water issues.

 We contacted PML Applications for expert assistance in a large international dispute. Their support was a strong factor in achieving an outstanding success in the case. I would have no hesitation in turning to PML Applications again for expert assistance. 

Bruce Gailey, Gailey Law

Expert profiles


Dr Tom VanceDr Tom Vance Phd, Marine Ecologist and Head of the Centre for Marine Biofouling and Corrosion. 14 years’ experience in antifouling R&D, marine coating testing and biofouling ecology. Tom is Co-chair of the Biofouling Management Expert Group of IMarEST.


Anna YunnieAnna Yunnie Marine Biologist & Ecologist and Lead on fouling species, in-water hull cleaning and biosecurity. Fouling species specialist with 12 years of scientific experience and around 200 hull and field surveys. Author of multiple peer reviewed papers, lecturer/instructor for university and UK Government Agencies, and expert advisor on international hull cleaning standards.


Tim FilemanTim Fileman Chartered Marine Scientist, MPhil and Head of the Ballast Water Centre. A marine scientist, with 10 years’ experience in the ballast water industry, testing systems for IMO and US regulatory compliance, and providing training for a range of customers such as the IMO. Global Testnet Secretary and Director, and member of the IMarEST Ballast Water Special Interest Group.


Biofouling under ship

Charter disputes

Assessments of hull inspection reports, passage history and coating systems to determine what, when and where fouling occurred during, or before, a charter period. A full report is supplied on the most likely species and origins of fouling occurrence in each particular case.

Cargo ship in port

Ballast water disputes

Assessments of ballast water related issues involving non-compliance with discharge regulations, sampling and test reports for ballast water compliance (including commissioning, efficacy and regulatory compliance testing) together with any issue that relates to regulated discharge concentrations of organisms.


For expert, impartial, informed advice talk to us first:

Telephone: +44 (0)7887 684858
Email: anyuNOSPAM@pml.ac.uk

Get in touch

Dr Tom VanceDr Tom Vance
Business Development Manager

Tel: +44 (0)1752 633 412